Friday, February 14, 2020

Find article themes, analyze, critique, synthesize and write a Essay

Find article themes, analyze, critique, synthesize and write a conclusion - Essay Example Another theme in the readings, developed through March and Olsen is institutionalism, which the authors define as a study of political entities and their relationships, through theoretical concepts and formulated hypotheses (2005). Institutionalization establishes constraints within which actors in an economic system (Ingram and Silverman, 2002). Closely related to these themes is the theme of susceptible governance whose remedy is an extensive network through â€Å"collaboration† and â€Å"performance management systems† (Imperial, 2004, p. 4). The theme is evident among practitioners as they seek to achieve better governance in an environment that experience forces from both public and private sectors. Significance of relationships between members of the networks through mutual benefit is another theme that the readings establish through Stephenson’s article (n.d.) and Milward support through his proposed guide to manager’s selection and application of c ollaborative networks (2006). Virtual networks through technology promote the networking (Alstyne 1997). The theme of economic governance is also significant in the readings and is developed through Mintzberg’s article (1996). ... The concept of market failure is a tool to government’s intervention in the economy but its validity and application is questioned. While the market failure concept initially guided government’s point of intervention to regulate the economy, its role diversified to determination of intervention strategies while little attention has been paid to the concept’s validity and empirical and theoretical background into the concept do not exist. Existence of discrepancies, contrary to expectations under mixed market in which forced interact to ensure efficient resource allocation, shows that the market failure concept has failed. Government’s efforts to use the concepts towards resource allocation and optimization of social benefits have also failed and this discredits validity of the concept as applied by the government. Regulations towards environmental conservation such as taxes to curtail excessive pollution have for instance failed to identify inadequacy of t he market failure concept (Vogel, 2009). Existence of externalities also challenges applicability of the market failure concept because it induces the need for a wider perspective to determining market failure (Tragakes, 2011). These challenges to the market failure concept therefore supports the proposal that the concept is ineffective and are consistent with Zerbe and McCurdy’s perspective that the government misuses the concept to justify its intervention in the economy. The theme of unreasonable use of the market failure concept is also evident in the readings and while it offers a basis for criticizing governance, it does not disqualify the need for government intervention in the economy. This position is informed because the society expects government intervention to ensure fair

Saturday, February 1, 2020

The Porter Five Forces Analysis Performed On the Case Study of the Article

The Porter Five Forces Analysis Performed On the Case Study of the Music Industry In 2006 - Article Example The paper tells that market attractiveness in this context refers to the general industry gain of profitability. On the other hand, in an unattractive industry or market setup, is one that does not conform to the five forces analysis, since it offers a projection of losses within the market in the long run. In other words, an unattractive market would be one that is approaching the level of "pure competition", that is, the available profits for all firms within the market are depicted at a normal profit. The porter five forces analytical model has the following components the facilitate the examination of a particular product within the industry: The first part of the porter five forces model is the Internal Rivalry, which explains the competitive level within the industry. In this particular scenario, the intensity of competition within the music industry in that specific year is high because given the numerous number of players in the music industry. The major players in this marke t include Universal Music Group which owns 26% share of the music global market and has the prospects of merging with Sony BMG Music Entertainment to increase the production rate of publishing music media. The merging of companies within a market tends to consolidate the industry. For example, in the year of 2004, the entertainment and recording companies, Sony Music and the BMG, merged to change the equilibrium within the competitive market. The major companies highlighted in the case study regarding the prospected changes in the music industry form mergers with the expectation of each company trying to favorably compete with each other by developing new products or increasing the mass of production in the market all the time. For instance, the 50-50 joint venture between Sony and BMG Music Entertainment which made it the second largest major in the music industry.

Friday, January 24, 2020

Kalevala Koru :: essays research papers

Kalevala Koru Introduction The history of Kalevala jewellery went back to the Association of Kalevala Women who aimed to safeguard ancient Finnish culture tradition. Making-making was regarded by them as one way to honour national history and culture heritage as well as one way to raise funds for the Association of Kalevala Women. The name Kalevala came from the national epic because of its strong connection Established in 1937, Kalevala Jewellery started to produce jewellery in 1940. In 1940s, though facing difficulties of lacking raw materials and skilful workforce in production, the jewellery sold very well both at home and abroad partly due to the fact that demand exceeded supply, partly due to its attendances at jewellery exhibitions which enlarged its brand fame. 1950s saw the steady growth of Kalevala till 1960s, however modern jewellery gained an increasing market share at the same time. In the early 70s situation improved a bit then replaced by a sliding down at the end of the decade till the beginning of 80s when the Association had to give financial aid to help it out. Then thanks to a change in fashion in the mid-80s, Kalevala won over new customers when young women wanted big, ethnic jewellery. The main product ranges of Kalevala were ancient and archaeological jewellery, historical jewellery and modern jewellery. Bronze was used as main raw materials to make jewellery, next was silver and then gold. Bronze jewellery contributed a large part of total production (70%). The silver and gold works accounted for 22 % and 8 % respectively. Almost the entire Kalevala jewellery range was available in both bronze and silver. Every year over 400 models were being produced, of which most were available in various forms, like pendants, earrings, necklaces, brooches, rings for girls and tiepins and cufflinks for men. The production process was so labour-intensive that in 1996 85 out of 143 employees worked for production section. With the joining of new CEO, Kalevala stepped into a new stage. By motivating employees, investing in production machines and R&D, focusing on three market segments which targeted young women, working women and loyal users and improving customer services which included re-adjusting salesmen’ attitude towards retailers, automating administrative work, adapting to a changing environment, Marja Usvasalo managed to achieve best performances in the period from 4/1995 to 3/1996 with profit increased greatly by 39% compared with previous year though it had to be reaffirmed that from 1988 till 1996 period the corporate performances had been improving.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Congressional Hearings in the US

Included in the Fourteenth Amendment are two very important clauses. These clauses are the â€Å"equal protection† and â€Å"due process of law† clauses. Both of these concepts play an instrumental role in the well being of the common American man. In addition, they both deal with issues regarding the fairness of law. The â€Å"due process of law† deals with the government fulfilling its responsibilities in trials, while the â€Å"equal protection clause† concerns equality in peoples† lives under the Constitution. The thought of â€Å"due process of law† is first mentioned in the Fourteenth Amendment near the beginning when it states: â€Å"No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.† This can be explained as a man†s rights to a fair governing. It is one of the oldest constitutional principles and the â€Å"due process† refers to the requirement that the actions of government be conducted according to the rule of law. No government can be above the law and the government cannot interfere with the rights of life, liberty, and property except according to established procedures of law. The Fourteenth Amendment also requires state governments to respect due process of law and gives the federal government the power to enforce this requirement. In America there are two different types of due process of law, â€Å"procedural due process of law† and â€Å"substantive due process of law†. Procedural due process of law means the government must use fair procedures in fulfilling its responsibilities. It requires that the procedures used by government in making, applying, interpreting, and enforcing law be reasonable and consistent. Substantive due process of law came in later and differed slightly from procedural due process. It made a requirement that the government could not make laws that apply to situations in which the government has no business interfering. It requires that the â€Å"substance† or purpose of laws be constitutional. The difference between procedural and substantive is that procedural says nothing about interference in certain cases, while substantive does. The Fourteenth Amendment continues and later talks about the â€Å"equal protection clause†. It states that no state may â€Å"deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.† By this provision the amendment gave a new importance to the principle of equality in the Constitution and peoples† lives. The Fourteenth Amendment†s original purpose was to create a society in which all people were treated equally before the law. However, through various interpretations it made it seem that the government was responsible for guaranteeing that all its citizens were equal in the amount of property they possesses, their living standards, education, medical care, and working conditions. It meant that no individual or group was to neither receive special privileges nor be deprived of certain rights under the law. The principle of a limited government is related to both of the aforementioned clauses in an assortment of different ways. It closely relates to the concept of â€Å"due process of law† in that both are in favor of the protection of the natural rights philosophy that states men should not be deprived of the rights of life, liberty, or property. Additionally due process of law and limited government relate to each other in that both say that no government can be above the law. The view of limited government relates to the equal protection of the law by stressing a non-discriminatory government. The equal protection of law established equality before the law, giving the same rights to a poor man, as a rich and powerful man may have. Similarly, limited government pushed for restraints and limits on power, which in turn made it difficult for certain people to become more powerful than others. The equal protection clause can be found in action in 1952, in the case of Brown vs. the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. The case was based on the segregation of educational facilities. The NAACP changed their focus from integrating higher educational facilities to integrated grade schools. After the change, the NAACP stepped in on this case and argued that segregated educational facilities were unequal, degrading to black students, and violated the fourteenth amendment's guarantee for equal protection. On May 17, 1954, the Supreme Court ruled that segregated schools were inherently unequal and did violate the Fourteenth Amendment. Brown vs. the Board of Education was a victory for the blacks as well as a victory for the power of the equal protection clause when correctly used. With this victory, an expansion of the protections of the Constitution was created, the equal protection clause would now be used again and again to fight the battle against unfair and unequal standards for certain groups.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

The Trade Of The Atlantic Slave Trade - 3341 Words

Peter Banyai Historiographical Paper Professor Hoag 12.2.2014 The Atlantic Slave Trade took place from the 16th century to the 19th century. Most of the slaves were taken from West Africa, but the trade also affected other parts of the continent. By the end of the trade, it became the biggest human migration to date. Generally, we know a lot about the effects slavery had in the New World, but we have less information on how the slave trade affected African societies. Although there were no scholars which contested the harm the slave trade caused, however, there is still debate over the effect of the trade within African societies. The debate over the impact on demography and economy still exist today. However, in this paper it is argued, mainly due to the growing contributions from African scholars and economists, that today historians are reaching a consensus that the slave trade caused long term effects on the demography, social structure and economy of African societies. In this paper, I will focus on how the trade impacted African communi ties in regards to demography, social structure, and economy, and I will demonstrate how the historiography in regards to these aspects has evolved to its present form. Demographic of the Slave Trade Before historians could really understand the impact of the trans-Atlantic they had to have a synthetized study on the demography of the trade concerning several questions; 1) how many slaves were there? 2) Where they came from? 3) And toShow MoreRelatedAtlantic Slave Trade1772 Words   |  8 Pagesorigins of the Atlantic Slave Trade were products of Western Europe’s expansion of power that began at the beginning of the 1500’s through the 1900‘s. The main contributing European countries to the Atlantic Slave Trade were Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, France, and England. Portugal lead the movement during the 1400’s and arrived in Western Africa in hopes to find Christian allies to spread Christianity against the Muslims of Northern Africa. But they soon became more interested in trade (Hine, HineRead MoreThe Atlantic Slave Trade1392 Words   |  6 PagesThe Atlantic Slave Trade was a system of slavery that took place between the 16th and 19th centuries. It comprised of capturing African tribesmen and women from areas of Western and Central Africa and placing them into the colonies of the New World in North, Central, and South America. Many countries like England, Portugal, Spain, Holland, and France, had participated in enslaving the African peoples. The African slaves were used to exploit an array of commodities such coffee, cotton, rum, sugarRead MoreThe Atlantic Slave Trade Essay1225 Words   |  5 Pages The Atlantic Slave trade can be divided into two eras. The first era of the Atlantic slave trade began on significant scale in 1502, with the Southern American Portuguese and Spanish colonies accounting for the majority of slave imports. Soon, the British, French and Dutch began to abduct people from Africa for the purpose of forming slave populations in the New World. This was the second era of the Atlantic slave trade and accounted for 97% of the total volume of the Atlantic Slave trade, withRead MoreComparing the Atlantic Slave Trade with the Arab Slave Trade848 Words   |  4 PagesIn contrast to the Atlantic slave trade, where the male-female ratio was 2:1, the Arab slave trade instead usually had a higher female-to-male ratio. Concubinage and reproduction served as incentives for importing female slaves, though many were also imported mainly for performing household tasks. In both continents, anything a slave owns, is automatically the master’s own too, however in Arabia, a slave may be allowed to earn money to purchase his or her freedom and similarly to pay bride wealthRead MoreThe Atlantic Slave Trade Movement870 Words   |  4 PagesThe Atlantic Slave trade helped many African Americans transport across the Atlantic Ocean. Many slaves went through different experiences as they migrated from the Atlantic Ocean to America. Slavery and Slave Trade occurred in variety of cultures for over thousand of years. In West Africa, slave trade was much more common. It involved majority women an d children that became servants only in Asia and North Africa. By the time Spain joined Portugal, the Atlantic slave trade expanded a there wasRead MoreThe Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade679 Words   |  3 PagesThe Trans-Atlantic slave occurred during the early sixteenth century and lasted until the beginning of the all the way to nineteenth century. It was during this time when the beginning of the Black Diaspora would begin to manifest itself with the exportation of millions of the African populace to the Americas. These African people were forced and taken from their respective countries in a horrific manner. The result, these people became the slaves of newly forming colonies in North America. The trekRead MoreThe Aftermath of the Atlantic Slave Trade779 Words   |  3 PagesThe aftermath of the Atlantic Slave Trade included the commercialization of African economies and the solidification of European colonization and colonialism. Describe this commercialization and its subsequent effects. The demise of the African slave trade began in 1807 when Britain forbade the capturing and selling of African slaves. The result had both positive and negative consequences for Africa. It was positive in that attention turned to the lucrative resources that Africa possessed and EuropeRead MoreA Study On Atlantic Slave Trade1732 Words   |  7 PagesSydney Abbott 11/20/14 History 2010 Professor Robinson Atlantic Slave Trade PART I Many historians will argue that the institution of enslaving Africans in European cultures was merely a commercial solution to an economic problem, not a result of racism. Slavery throughout history existing in the America and the New World has been mainly identified with â€Å"the Negro slave.† Although, the truth is that slaves of the New World were of all different religious denominations and ethnicities, not strictlyRead MoreEffects Of The Atlantic Slave Trade967 Words   |  4 Pagesbeen a crime. The effects of The Atlantic Slave Trade still lingers in today’s culture. It was one of the vast developments that help shape the course of history as the World knows it. Ultimately there is no way to justify who is responsible. Europeans and Africans should be held equally accountable for the destruction of the African population. The Ottoman Empire took control over Constantinople in 1453. When doing so they put an end to the supply of Slavic slaves. Before the 15th century southernRead MoreEssay on The Atlantic Slave Trade921 Words   |  4 PagesThe Atlantic Slave Trade The changes in African life during the slave trade era form an important element in the economic and technological development of Africa. Although the Atlantic slave trade had a negative effect on both the economy and technology, it is important to understand that slavery was not a new concept to Africa. In fact, internal slavery existed in Africa for many years. Slaves included war captives, the kidnapped, adulterers, and other criminals and outcasts. However

Tuesday, December 31, 2019

In Pride and Prejudice, Jane Austen’s usage of letters...

In Pride and Prejudice, Jane Austen’s usage of letters allows the reader to fully comprehend the situation and certain feelings of the characters. The Usage of Jane’s Letters in Pride and Prejudice In Pride and Prejudice, Jane Austen’s usage of letters allows the reader to fully comprehend the situation and certain feelings of the characters. For example, the two letters sent by Jane Bennet to Elizabeth Bennet in Chapter 46 allow the novel to arrive at a turning point in many different aspects. The obvious purpose of the written letters is to inform the reader of the events at hand regarding Lydia Bennet and Mr. Wickham. However, these letters allow changes to take place in other relationships as well. Jane Bennet†¦show more content†¦Wickham as well as Elizabeth and Mr. Darcy. However the seriousness of the situation in itself, the relationship between Mr. Darcy and Elizabeth Bennet is furthermore developed because of these two letters. Elizabeth turns to Mr. Darcy as soon as he appears and immediately notifies him of everything. This action of hers illustrates the budding closeness between the two and how she relies on Darcy. Both Elizabeth and Mr. Darcy blame themselves for not exposing Mr. Wickham as the vagrant that he truly is. Therefore, this shared guilt provides the nascent couple with a strong emotional connection and a universal principle. A major factor of a couple’s relationship is how they react in times of distress. Do they turn to each other for support or withdraw from one another? Elizabeth’s reliance on Mr. Darcy is a foreshadowing of a wonderful relationship to come for the couple. The two letters alone are a catalyst in exposing these emotions that might otherwise be suppressed. The two letters will generally contribute to furthering the development of Elizabeth and Mr. Darcy’s relationship. Perhaps the reasoning behind Lydia’s actions could be her family and their attitudes toward certain subjects such as men, romance, and marriage. Mrs. Bennet is consistently pressuring her daughters to become married women in order to ensure social status and financial security for the remainder of their lives. It seems that her only goal in life isShow MoreRelatedEssay about A Sense of Place in Austens Pride and Prejudice1450 Words   |  6 PagesA Sense of Place in Austens Pride and Prejudice It is interesting to observe Dictionary.coms definition of the word place in relation to person. Especially when it comes to Pride and Prejudice, where Austen has made great use of the objective correlative technique, in which many, if not all, of her settings considerably reflect the characteristics of their owners. She additionally employs several other techniques regarding the sense of place in her novel, which are important not

Monday, December 23, 2019

The War Against Underage Drinking Essay - 2488 Words

A serious epidemic is overtaking this country. Underage drinking is spreading like a virus. It is not just teenagers in college that are drinking; there are numerous kids in high school, middle school, and even elementary school! How have we let it get this far? There is no excuse to be oblivious anymore. Underage drinking is right in front of our faces. It is killing our children. The good news is that this is a problem that can be fixed. There is no way of completely eliminating underage drinking, but it can be greatly reduced. With efforts from the government, parents, and the media, we can diminish underage drinking a great deal. We need to start educating our children that alcohol is a dangerous drug. We need to start setting better†¦show more content†¦But they are not smart enough to see what alcohol can do to their brain and their decisions. There is a reason why we have the law set at age twenty one. A human?s brain is not done developing until the age of twenty-o ne. Drinking before this age can contribute to alcohol-induced brain damage which can hinder a teenager?s performance in academics (Alcohol Alert). There is also a risk that teenagers that drink are four times more likely to develop an alcohol dependency sometime in their lives. Risks in sexual assault also plague underage drinkers. Sexual assault is already more prevalent during adolescent ages. By introducing alcohol, sexual assault cases are much more likely to happen. It has also been shown that when alcohol is involved, the more likely sex will result in unwanted pregnancies and STD?s. There is also a much higher risk of suicide. In one study, thirty seven percent of females that drank heavily had reported attempting suicide compared to only eleven percent that did not report drinking (Armstrong, Elizabeth). ?Smart? college students will even tell you that alcohol affects them. According to Hank Nuwer in Wrongs of Passage, four out of every five students in the collegiate Greek system are binge drinkers. These drinkers will tell you that this has caused them to engage in risky sexual behaviors, act irresponsibly, and hurt their academic standings. From elementary schoolers to college students, alcohol has detrimental effectsShow MoreRelatedDrinking Age Should Be Lowered937 Words   |  4 PagesDrinking Age should be lowered from twenty one to eighteen There is no taboo subject in America quote like underage drinking. The principal problem is not the age of drinking, but the hidden binge side of it. When it comes to the law, there is always an opinion. A reform should be made about the age of drinking for numerous reasons in my personal viewpoint. In the U.S, at the age of eighteen, one can legally vote, buy cigarettes, and join the army, to cite a few things. Going against the law, criticsRead MorePersuasive Essay On Underage Drinking1291 Words   |  6 PagesUnderage drinking is one of the largest problems that we have in the United States. This is a problem because alcohol is an item that nobody under twenty-one years of age is allowed to purchase or consume. People who are underage are punished by law when they consume or attempt to purchase alcohol illegally. This makes people under twenty-one want alcohol even more. In other countries where the drinking age is lower, there are less problems because it gives parents the push to teach their childrenRead MoreThe Minimum Drinking Age Act Of 19841407 Words   |  6 Pagesthe United States Congress passed the National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984. Signed by President Ronald Regan, which requires that states prohibit people under the age of 21 from purchasing or publicly process alcoholic beverages as a condition of receiving State highway funds. Initially intended as a comprehensive approach to reduce the number of alcohol related deaths on the nations highways. Not prohibiting a person under 21 from drinking under certain exceptions some such as religious purposesRead MoreThe Consequences Of Underage Drinking1745 Words   |  7 PagesConsequences of Underage Drinking While alcohol may not be the most dangerous of drugs, it is harmful nonetheless. There have been many research studies done by the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism that prove this to be true. Binge drinking is drinking with the purpose of getting drunk, and is the most common form of alcohol consumption while it is also the most dangerous. There have been numerous researches by other organizations and scientists that have demonstrated just how dangerousRead More Lowering the Drinking Age Appears to be Best Solution Essay1627 Words   |  7 PagesLowering the Drinking Age Appears to be Best Solution Despite offering many solutions to the ongoing problem of underage drinking, there seems to be no chance for a law to pass that will lower the drinking age. Pete Coors of Coors Brewing Co. ran for senator in the Colorado election and campaigned that he was not pushing to lower the drinking age, however many of his quotes are not consistent with this point of view. No matter what the ultimate decision is for the drinking age, fake IDs and parentsRead MoreMinimum Legal Drinking Age Should Remain at the Age of 21 Essay1310 Words   |  6 PagesWithout a doubt, the United States has been facing serious national problems with underage drinking. Depending on personal ideologies, some people might not agree that the current minimum drinking age of twenty-one is based on scientific facts rather then ideology of prohibitionism. For example, since 1975 over seventeen thousand lives have been saved since the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) was changed to age twenty-one (Balkin 167). This s hows that even over a short amount of time, a higherRead MoreDrinking Age Essay677 Words   |  3 PagesDrinking Age When teen-agers turn 18, they are told that they are adults and are sent into the world. They go to college, get a job, marry or join the military. They do grown-up things like vote, pay taxes and become parents. But they cant go to the pub for a beer because when it comes to liquor, they are still just kids. Wheres the fairness in the 21-and-older drinking law? First, it is necessary to question this law. Why is 21 the magical age that makes one intelligent and matureRead MoreThe Debate Over The Drinking Age1025 Words   |  5 PagesI have always wondered why the drinking age was raised to twenty-one. I have looked and researched the following information but still don’t have a true explanation as to why it was raised to the age of twenty-one. The movement called Amethyst Initiative began recruiting university presidents to provoke national debate about the drinking age. College Presidents from about 100 of the nation’s universities, are calling on law makers to consider lowering the drinking age from twenty-one to eighteenRead MoreEssay about Keeping the Drinking Age at 211662 Words   |  7 PagesWhen it comes to the subject of drinking and teenagers, what is the first thing that comes to mind? To me its the legal age limit of when teens should be able to drink. Having it lowered is controversial because according to prior experiences, data shows that younger age drinking is well known for its fatalities. According to Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), on one of the most popular prom nights in 1999, as many as 62 percent of the traffic deaths were alcohol-related (). The most importantRead MoreThe Legal Drinking Age Should Be Lowered From The Age Of 21 Essay980 Words   |  4 Pagesconsidered â€Å"adults† cannot even make their own decisions? The drinking age on alcohol is a controversial social and cultural issue in today’s society; all fifty states have a minimum drinking age of 21. The legal drinking age should be lowered from the age of 21 to 18 allowing young adults to be granted the right to drink in restaurants, bars, at social events, in the comfort of their own home, and so on. If anything, lowering the legal drinking age would have a positive impact on the United Sates economy